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[1] Xin C, Kim J, Quan H, Yin M, Jeong S, Choi JI, Jang EA, Lee CH, Kim DH, Bae HB (2019) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages via an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Dec;77:105945. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105945. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

[2] Liu X, Zhang Z, Liu J, Wang Y, Zhou Q, Wang S, Wang X (2019)“Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cyclophosphamide-induced immunocompetence in Balb/c mice.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jul;72:98-111. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.04.003. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

[3] Shin JY, Song JY, Yun YS, Yang HO, Rhee DK, Pyo S (2002)“Immunostimulating effects of acidic polysaccharides extract of Panax ginseng on macrophage function.” Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2002 Aug;24(3):469-82.

[4] Seo JY, Choi JW, Lee JY, Park YS, Park YI (2018)“Enzyme Hydrolysates of Ginseng Marc Polysaccharides Promote the Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages Via Activation of TLR2 and Mer Tyrosine Kinase.” J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Jun 28;28(6):860-873. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1801.01003.

[5] Kim TW, Joh EH, Kim B, Kim DH (2012)“Ginsenoside Rg5 ameliorates lung inflammation in mice by inhibiting the binding of LPS to toll-like receptor-4 on macrophages.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Jan;12(1):110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2011.10.023. Epub 2011 Nov 19.

[6] Ahn S, Siddiqi MH, Aceituno VC, Simu SY, Zhang J, Jimenez Perez ZE, Kim YJ, Yang DC (2016)“Ginsenoside Rg5:Rk1 attenuates TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and LPS-induced NO production via downregulation of NF-κB/p38 MAPK/STAT1 signaling in human keratinocytes and macrophages.” In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016 Mar;52(3):287-295. doi: 10.1007/s11626-015-9983-y. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

[7] Yu Q, Zeng KW, Ma XL, Jiang Y, Tu PF, Wang XM (2017)“Ginsenoside Rk1 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by inhibiting the Jak2/Stat3 pathway.” Chin J Nat Med. 2017 Oct;15(10):751-757. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30106-1.

[8] Shi Y, Wang H, Zheng M, Xu W, Yang Y, Shi F (2020)“Ginsenoside Rg3 suppresses the NLRP3 inflammasome activation through inhibition of its assembly.” FASEB J. 2020 Jan;34(1):208-221. doi: 10.1096/fj.201901537R. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

[9] Lee JW, Choi YR, Mok HJ, Seong HA, Lee DY, Kim GS, Yoon JH, Kim KP, Kim HD (2017)“Characterization of the changes in eicosanoid profiles of activated macrophages treated with 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3.” J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017 Oct 15;1065-1066:14-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.09.002. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

[10] Lee YY, Saba E, Irfan M, Kim M, Chan JY, Jeon BS, Choi SK, Rhee MH (2019)“The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of Korean black ginseng.” Phytomedicine. 2019 Feb 15;54:169-181. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.186. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

[11] Adam GO, Kim GB, Lee SJ, Lee H, Kang HS, Kim SJ (2019)“Red Ginseng Reduces Inflammatory Response via Suppression MAPK/P38 Signaling and p65 Nuclear Proteins Translocation in Rats and Raw 264.7 Macrophage.” Am J Chin Med. 2019;47(7):1589-1609. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X19500812. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

[12] Shin KK, Yi YS, Kim JK, Kim H, Hossain MA, Kim JH, Cho JY (2020)“Korean Red Ginseng Plays An Anti-Aging Role by Modulating Expression of Aging-Related Genes and Immune Cell Subsets.” Molecules. 2020 Mar 25;25(7). pii: E1492. doi: 10.3390/molecules25071492.

[13] Jhun J, Lee J, Byun JK, Kim EK, Woo JW, Lee JH, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Park KS, Kim HY, Park SH, Cho ML (2014)“Red ginseng extract ameliorates autoimmune arthritis via regulation of STAT3 pathway, Th17/Treg balance, and osteoclastogenesis in mice and human.” Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:351856. doi: 10.1155/2014/351856. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

[14] Heo SB, Lim SW, Jhun JY, Cho ML, Chung BH, Yang CW (2016)“Immunological benefits by ginseng through reciprocal regulation of Th17 and Treg cells during cyclosporine-induced immunosuppression.” J Ginseng Res. 2016 Jan;40(1):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2015.04.005. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

[15] Pace L, Tempez A, Arnold-Schrauf C, Lemaitre F, Bousso P, Fetler L, Sparwasser T, Amigorena S (2012)« Regulatory T cells increase the avidity of primary CD8+ T cell responses and promote memory.” Science. 2012 Oct 26;338(6106):532-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1227049.

[16] Kim MH, Byon YY, Ko EJ, Song JY, Yun YS, Shin T, Joo HG (2009) – “Immunomodulatory activity of ginsan, a polysaccharide of panax ginseng, on dendritic cells.” Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;13(3):169-73. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2009.13.3.169. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

[17] Na HS, Lim YJ, Yun YS, Kweon MN, Lee HC (2010) – “Ginsan enhances humoral antibody response to orally delivered antigen.” Immune Netw. 2010 Feb;10(1):5-14. doi: 10.4110/in.2010.10.1.5. Epub 2010 Feb 28.



[1] Hou J, Xue J, Wang Z, Li W (2018) “Ginsenoside Rg3 and Rh2 protect trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity via prevention on neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation.” Phytother Res. 2018 Dec;32(12):2531-2540. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6193. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

[2] Park SM, Choi MS, Sohn NW, Shin JW (2012) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates microglia activation following systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice.” Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(9):1546-52.

[3] He B, Chen P, Yang J, Yun Y, Zhang X, Yang R, Shen Z (2012) – “Neuroprotective effect of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg(3) against transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.” Neurosci Lett. 2012 Sep 27;526(2):106-11. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.08.022. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

[4] Kim SO, You JM, Yun SJ, Son MS, Nam KN, Hong JW, Kim SY, Choi SY, Lee EH (2010) – “Ginsenoside rb1 and rg3 attenuate glucocorticoid-induced neurotoxicity.” Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Aug;30(6):857-62. doi: 10.1007/s10571-010-9513-0. Epub 2010 Mar 25.

[5] Tian J, Zhang S, Li G, Liu Z, Xu B (2009) – “20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3, a neuroprotective agent, inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pores in rat brain.” Phytother Res. 2009 Apr;23(4):486-91. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2653.

[6] Joo SS, Yoo YM, Ahn BW, Nam SY, Kim YB, Hwang KW, Lee DI (2008) – “Prevention of inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity by Rg3 and its role in microglial activation.” Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Jul;31(7):1392-6.

[7] Kim JH, Cho SY, Lee JH, Jeong SM, Yoon IS, Lee BH, Lee JH, Pyo MK, Lee SM, Chung JM, Kim S, Rhim H, Oh JW, Nah SY (2007) – “Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg3 against homocysteine-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.” Brain Res. 2007 Mar 9;1136(1):190-9. Epub 2006 Dec 22.

[8] Tian J, Fu F, Geng M, Jiang Y, Yang J, Jiang W, Wang C, Liu K (2005) – “Neuroprotective effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on cerebral ischemia in rats.” Neurosci Lett. 2005 Feb 10;374(2):92-7.

[9] Kim J, Shim J, Lee S, Cho WH, Hong E, Lee JH, Han JS, Lee HJ, Lee KW (2016) – “Rg3-enriched ginseng extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficits in mice.” BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Feb 18;16:66. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1050-z.

[10] Lee B, Sur B, Park J, Kim SH, Kwon S, Yeom M, Shim I, Lee H, Hahm DH (2013) – “Ginsenoside rg3 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced learning and memory impairments by anti-inflammatory activity in rats.” Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2013 Sep 30;21(5):381-90. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2013.053.

[11] Zhang Y, Yang X, Wang S, Song S (2019) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 Prevents Cognitive Impairment by Improving Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Sep 11;67(36):10048-10058. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b03793. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

[12] Jang SK, Yu JM, Kim ST, Kim GH, Park DW, Lee DI, Joo SS (2015) – “An Aβ42 uptake and degradation via Rg3 requires an activation of caveolin, clathrin and Aβ-degrading enzymes in microglia.” Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul 5;758:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.071. Epub 2015 Apr 4.

[13] Kang MS, Baek SH, Chun YS, Moore AZ, Landman N, Berman D, Yang HO, Morishima-Kawashima M, Osawa S, Funamoto S, Ihara Y, Di Paolo G, Park JH, Chung S, Kim TW (2013) – “Modulation of lipid kinase PI4KIIα activity and lipid raft association of presenilin 1 underlies γ-secretase inhibition by ginsenoside (20S)-Rg3.” J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 19;288(29):20868-82. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.445734. Epub 2013 May 30.

[14] Yang L, Hao J, Zhang J, Xia W, Dong X, Hu X, Kong F, Cui X (2009) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes beta-amyloid peptide degradation by enhancing gene expression of neprilysin.” J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 Mar;61(3):375-80. doi: 10.1211/jpp/61.03.0013

[15] Kim EJ, Jung IH, Van Le TK, Jeong JJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH (2013) – “Ginsenosides Rg5 and Rh3 protect scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Mar 7;146(1):294-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.047. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

[16] Chu S, Gu J, Feng L, Liu J, Zhang M, Jia X, Liu M, Yao D (2014) – Ginsenoside Rg5 improves cognitive dysfunction and beta-amyloid deposition in STZ-induced memory impaired rats via attenuating neuroinflammatory responses.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Apr;19(2):317-26. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.01.018. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

[17] Mariage PA, Hovhannisyan A, Panossian AG (2020) – “Efficacy of Panax ginseng Meyer Herbal Preparation HRG80 in Preventing and Mitigating Stress-Induced Failure of Cognitive Functions in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.” Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020 Mar 29;13(4):57. doi: 10.3390/ph13040057.

[18] Yang QY, Lai XD, Ouyang J, Yang JD (2018) – “Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 on fatigue resistance and SIRT1 in aged rats.” Toxicology. 2018 Nov 1;409:144-151. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2018.08.010. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

[19] Xu Y, Zhang P, Wang C, Shan Y, Wang D, Qian F, Sun M, Zhu C (2013) – “Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on tyrosine hydroxylase and related mechanisms in the forced swimming-induced fatigue rats.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct 28;150(1):138-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.016. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

[20] M, Huang C, Wang C, Zheng J, Zhang P, Xu Y, Chen H, Shen W (2013) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: mimetic exercise training.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Nov 8;441(1):169-74. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.039. Epub 2013 Oct 15.


Mariage PA, Hovhannisyan A, Panossian AG (2020) – “Efficacy of Panax ginseng Meyer Herbal Preparation HRG80 in Preventing and Mitigating Stress-Induced Failure of Cognitive Functions in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial” Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020 Mar 29;13(4):57. doi: 10.3390/ph13040057.

[2] Xu JN, Chen LF, Su J, Liu ZL, Chen J, Lin QF, Mao WD, Shen D (2018) – “The anxiolytic-like effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on chronic unpredictable stress in rats.” Sci Rep. 2018 May 17;8(1):7741. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26146-5.

[3] Kang A, Xie T, Zhu D, Shan J, Di L, Zheng X (2017) – “Suppressive Effect of Ginsenoside Rg3 against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depression-Like Behavior and Neuroinflammation in Mice.” J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Aug 16;65(32):6861-6869. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02386. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

[4] Zhang H, Zhou Z, Chen Z, Zhong Z, Li Z (2017) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 exerts anti-depressive effect on an NMDA-treated cell model and a chronic mild stress animal model.” J Pharmacol Sci. 2017 May;134(1):45-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

[5] You Z, Yao Q, Shen J, Gu Z, Xu H, Wu Z, Chen C, Li L (2017) – “Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg3 in mice via activation of the hippocampal BDNF signaling cascade.” J Nat Med. 2017 Apr;71(2):367-379. doi: 10.1007/s11418-016-1066-1. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

[6] Kim TW, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH (2009) – “Anxiolytic-like effects of ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 from red ginseng in the elevated plus-maze model.” Planta Med. 2009 Jun;75(8):836-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185402. Epub 2009 Mar 5.

[7] Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Lee EH, Chung BC (2006) – “The antistress effect of ginseng total saponin and ginsenoside Rg3 and Rb1 evaluated by brain polyamine level under immobilization stress.” Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jul;54(1):46-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10.

[8] Zhang H, Li Z, Zhou Z, Yang H, Zhong Z, Lou C (2016) –Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenosides: A comparison of ginsenoside Rb3 and its four deglycosylated derivatives, Rg3, Rh2, compound K, and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in mice models of despair.” Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016 Jan;140:17-26. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.10.018. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

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