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[1] Xin C, Kim J, Quan H, Yin M, Jeong S, Choi JI, Jang EA, Lee CH, Kim DH, Bae HB (2019) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages via an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Dec;77:105945. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105945. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

[2] Liu X, Zhang Z, Liu J, Wang Y, Zhou Q, Wang S, Wang X (2019) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cyclophosphamide-induced immunocompetence in Balb/c mice.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jul;72:98-111. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.04.003. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

[3] Shin JY, Song JY, Yun YS, Yang HO, Rhee DK, Pyo S (2002) – “Immunostimulating effects of acidic polysaccharides extract of Panax ginseng on macrophage function.” Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2002 Aug;24(3):469-82.

[4] Seo JY, Choi JW, Lee JY, Park YS, Park YI (2018) – “Enzyme Hydrolysates of Ginseng Marc Polysaccharides Promote the Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages Via Activation of TLR2 and Mer Tyrosine Kinase.” J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Jun 28;28(6):860-873. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1801.01003.

[5] Kim TW, Joh EH, Kim B, Kim DH (2012) – “Ginsenoside Rg5 ameliorates lung inflammation in mice by inhibiting the binding of LPS to toll-like receptor-4 on macrophages.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Jan;12(1):110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2011.10.023. Epub 2011 Nov 19.

[6] Ahn S, Siddiqi MH, Aceituno VC, Simu SY, Zhang J, Jimenez Perez ZE, Kim YJ, Yang DC (2016) – “Ginsenoside Rg5:Rk1 attenuates TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and LPS-induced NO production via downregulation of NF-κB/p38 MAPK/STAT1 signaling in human keratinocytes and macrophages.” In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016 Mar;52(3):287-295. doi: 10.1007/s11626-015-9983-y. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

[7] Yu Q, Zeng KW, Ma XL, Jiang Y, Tu PF, Wang XM (2017) – “Ginsenoside Rk1 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by inhibiting the Jak2/Stat3 pathway.” Chin J Nat Med. 2017 Oct;15(10):751-757. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30106-1.

[8] Shi Y, Wang H, Zheng M, Xu W, Yang Y, Shi F (2020) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 suppresses the NLRP3 inflammasome activation through inhibition of its assembly.” FASEB J. 2020 Jan;34(1):208-221. doi: 10.1096/fj.201901537R. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

[9] Lee JW, Choi YR, Mok HJ, Seong HA, Lee DY, Kim GS, Yoon JH, Kim KP, Kim HD (2017) – “Characterization of the changes in eicosanoid profiles of activated macrophages treated with 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3.” J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017 Oct 15;1065-1066:14-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.09.002. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

[10] Lee YY, Saba E, Irfan M, Kim M, Chan JY, Jeon BS, Choi SK, Rhee MH (2019) – “The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of Korean black ginseng.” Phytomedicine. 2019 Feb 15;54:169-181. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.186. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

[11] Adam GO, Kim GB, Lee SJ, Lee H, Kang HS, Kim SJ (2019) – “Red Ginseng Reduces Inflammatory Response via Suppression MAPK/P38 Signaling and p65 Nuclear Proteins Translocation in Rats and Raw 264.7 Macrophage.” Am J Chin Med. 2019;47(7):1589-1609. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X19500812. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

[12] Shin KK, Yi YS, Kim JK, Kim H, Hossain MA, Kim JH, Cho JY (2020) – “Korean Red Ginseng Plays An Anti-Aging Role by Modulating Expression of Aging-Related Genes and Immune Cell Subsets.” Molecules. 2020 Mar 25;25(7). pii: E1492. doi: 10.3390/molecules25071492.

[13] Jhun J, Lee J, Byun JK, Kim EK, Woo JW, Lee JH, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Park KS, Kim HY, Park SH, Cho ML (2014) – “Red ginseng extract ameliorates autoimmune arthritis via regulation of STAT3 pathway, Th17/Treg balance, and osteoclastogenesis in mice and human.” Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:351856. doi: 10.1155/2014/351856. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

[14] Heo SB, Lim SW, Jhun JY, Cho ML, Chung BH, Yang CW (2016) – “Immunological benefits by ginseng through reciprocal regulation of Th17 and Treg cells during cyclosporine-induced immunosuppression.” J Ginseng Res. 2016 Jan;40(1):18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2015.04.005. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

[15] Pace L, Tempez A, Arnold-Schrauf C, Lemaitre F, Bousso P, Fetler L, Sparwasser T, Amigorena S (2012) – « Regulatory T cells increase the avidity of primary CD8+ T cell responses and promote memory.” Science. 2012 Oct 26;338(6106):532-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1227049.

[16] Kim MH, Byon YY, Ko EJ, Song JY, Yun YS, Shin T, Joo HG (2009) “Immunomodulatory activity of ginsan, a polysaccharide of panax ginseng, on dendritic cells.” Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;13(3):169-73. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2009.13.3.169. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

[17] Na HS, Lim YJ, Yun YS, Kweon MN, Lee HC (2010) “Ginsan enhances humoral antibody response to orally delivered antigen.” Immune Netw. 2010 Feb;10(1):5-14. doi: 10.4110/in.2010.10.1.5. Epub 2010 Feb 28.



[1] Hou J, Xue J, Wang Z, Li W (2018) “Ginsenoside Rg3 and Rh2 protect trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity via prevention on neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation.” Phytother Res. 2018 Dec;32(12):2531-2540. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6193. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

[2] Park SM, Choi MS, Sohn NW, Shin JW (2012) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates microglia activation following systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice.” Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(9):1546-52.

[3] He B, Chen P, Yang J, Yun Y, Zhang X, Yang R, Shen Z (2012) – “Neuroprotective effect of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg(3) against transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.” Neurosci Lett. 2012 Sep 27;526(2):106-11. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.08.022. Epub 2012 Aug 19.

[4] Kim SO, You JM, Yun SJ, Son MS, Nam KN, Hong JW, Kim SY, Choi SY, Lee EH (2010) – “Ginsenoside rb1 and rg3 attenuate glucocorticoid-induced neurotoxicity.” Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Aug;30(6):857-62. doi: 10.1007/s10571-010-9513-0. Epub 2010 Mar 25.

[5] Tian J, Zhang S, Li G, Liu Z, Xu B (2009) – “20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3, a neuroprotective agent, inhibits mitochondrial permeability transition pores in rat brain.” Phytother Res. 2009 Apr;23(4):486-91. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2653.

[6] Joo SS, Yoo YM, Ahn BW, Nam SY, Kim YB, Hwang KW, Lee DI (2008) – “Prevention of inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity by Rg3 and its role in microglial activation.” Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Jul;31(7):1392-6.

[7] Kim JH, Cho SY, Lee JH, Jeong SM, Yoon IS, Lee BH, Lee JH, Pyo MK, Lee SM, Chung JM, Kim S, Rhim H, Oh JW, Nah SY (2007) – “Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg3 against homocysteine-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.” Brain Res. 2007 Mar 9;1136(1):190-9. Epub 2006 Dec 22.

[8] Tian J, Fu F, Geng M, Jiang Y, Yang J, Jiang W, Wang C, Liu K (2005) – “Neuroprotective effect of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on cerebral ischemia in rats.” Neurosci Lett. 2005 Feb 10;374(2):92-7.

[9] Kim J, Shim J, Lee S, Cho WH, Hong E, Lee JH, Han JS, Lee HJ, Lee KW (2016) – “Rg3-enriched ginseng extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficits in mice.” BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Feb 18;16:66. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1050-z.

[10] Lee B, Sur B, Park J, Kim SH, Kwon S, Yeom M, Shim I, Lee H, Hahm DH (2013) – “Ginsenoside rg3 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced learning and memory impairments by anti-inflammatory activity in rats.” Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2013 Sep 30;21(5):381-90. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2013.053.

[11] Zhang Y, Yang X, Wang S, Song S (2019) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 Prevents Cognitive Impairment by Improving Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Sep 11;67(36):10048-10058. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b03793. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

[12] Jang SK, Yu JM, Kim ST, Kim GH, Park DW, Lee DI, Joo SS (2015) – “An Aβ42 uptake and degradation via Rg3 requires an activation of caveolin, clathrin and Aβ-degrading enzymes in microglia.” Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul 5;758:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.071. Epub 2015 Apr 4.

[13] Kang MS, Baek SH, Chun YS, Moore AZ, Landman N, Berman D, Yang HO, Morishima-Kawashima M, Osawa S, Funamoto S, Ihara Y, Di Paolo G, Park JH, Chung S, Kim TW (2013) – “Modulation of lipid kinase PI4KIIα activity and lipid raft association of presenilin 1 underlies γ-secretase inhibition by ginsenoside (20S)-Rg3.” J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 19;288(29):20868-82. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.445734. Epub 2013 May 30.

[14] Yang L, Hao J, Zhang J, Xia W, Dong X, Hu X, Kong F, Cui X (2009) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes beta-amyloid peptide degradation by enhancing gene expression of neprilysin.” J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 Mar;61(3):375-80. doi: 10.1211/jpp/61.03.0013

[15] Kim EJ, Jung IH, Van Le TK, Jeong JJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH (2013) – “Ginsenosides Rg5 and Rh3 protect scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Mar 7;146(1):294-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.047. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

[16] Chu S, Gu J, Feng L, Liu J, Zhang M, Jia X, Liu M, Yao D (2014) – Ginsenoside Rg5 improves cognitive dysfunction and beta-amyloid deposition in STZ-induced memory impaired rats via attenuating neuroinflammatory responses.” Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Apr;19(2):317-26. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.01.018. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

[17] Mariage PA, Hovhannisyan A, Panossian AG (2020) – “Efficacy of Panax ginseng Meyer Herbal Preparation HRG80 in Preventing and Mitigating Stress-Induced Failure of Cognitive Functions in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.” Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020 Mar 29;13(4):57. doi: 10.3390/ph13040057.

[18] Yang QY, Lai XD, Ouyang J, Yang JD (2018) – “Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 on fatigue resistance and SIRT1 in aged rats.” Toxicology. 2018 Nov 1;409:144-151. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2018.08.010. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

[19] Xu Y, Zhang P, Wang C, Shan Y, Wang D, Qian F, Sun M, Zhu C (2013) – “Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on tyrosine hydroxylase and related mechanisms in the forced swimming-induced fatigue rats.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct 28;150(1):138-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.016. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

[20] M, Huang C, Wang C, Zheng J, Zhang P, Xu Y, Chen H, Shen W (2013) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: mimetic exercise training.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Nov 8;441(1):169-74. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.039. Epub 2013 Oct 15.


Mariage PA, Hovhannisyan A, Panossian AG (2020) – “Efficacy of Panax ginseng Meyer Herbal Preparation HRG80 in Preventing and Mitigating Stress-Induced Failure of Cognitive Functions in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial” Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2020 Mar 29;13(4):57. doi: 10.3390/ph13040057.

[2] Xu JN, Chen LF, Su J, Liu ZL, Chen J, Lin QF, Mao WD, Shen D (2018) – “The anxiolytic-like effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on chronic unpredictable stress in rats.” Sci Rep. 2018 May 17;8(1):7741. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26146-5.

[3] Kang A, Xie T, Zhu D, Shan J, Di L, Zheng X (2017) – “Suppressive Effect of Ginsenoside Rg3 against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depression-Like Behavior and Neuroinflammation in Mice.” J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Aug 16;65(32):6861-6869. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02386. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

[4] Zhang H, Zhou Z, Chen Z, Zhong Z, Li Z (2017) – “Ginsenoside Rg3 exerts anti-depressive effect on an NMDA-treated cell model and a chronic mild stress animal model.” J Pharmacol Sci. 2017 May;134(1):45-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

[5] You Z, Yao Q, Shen J, Gu Z, Xu H, Wu Z, Chen C, Li L (2017) – “Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg3 in mice via activation of the hippocampal BDNF signaling cascade.” J Nat Med. 2017 Apr;71(2):367-379. doi: 10.1007/s11418-016-1066-1. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

[6] Kim TW, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH (2009) – “Anxiolytic-like effects of ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 from red ginseng in the elevated plus-maze model.” Planta Med. 2009 Jun;75(8):836-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185402. Epub 2009 Mar 5.

[7] Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Lee EH, Chung BC (2006) – “The antistress effect of ginseng total saponin and ginsenoside Rg3 and Rb1 evaluated by brain polyamine level under immobilization stress.” Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jul;54(1):46-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10.

[8] Zhang H, Li Z, Zhou Z, Yang H, Zhong Z, Lou C (2016) –Antidepressant-like effects of ginsenosides: A comparison of ginsenoside Rb3 and its four deglycosylated derivatives, Rg3, Rh2, compound K, and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in mice models of despair.” Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016 Jan;140:17-26. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.10.018. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

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